Intense care of our health can avoid the risk of diabetes. The common signs which indicate its symptoms are increased thirst, unexplained loss of weight, recurrent urination, change in mood, cloudy appearance in front of eyes, and increased hunger. It may also be because of increased or decreased level of glucose in our body. As one suffers from above clues, it is recommended to consult the doctor and under go with some basic tests and diagnosis of sugar, which will helps an individual to find type of prevailing diabetes.
The diagnosis of diabetes is done in four ways – they are physical checkup, through blood test, urine test, and radiological examinations.
Physical examination: Scrutinize for ciphers of Diabetes mellitus problems counting diabetes retinopathy, ischemic cardiac sickness, stroke, hypertension, cataracts, candida skin & genital taints, peripheral neuropathy.
Different Urine tests are to be done to know the range of sugar in a body and to find its internal effect in the body.
- Fasting urine test
- Test of urine randomly (2 hours of gap)
- Mid-stream urine test
- 24-hour urine microalbumin test
- If a person is suspect of insipidus diabetes, a water deficiency test is done.
- Urine ketones test is to check the level of ketones in our body. Normally this test is done for Type 1 diabetic patient or if the blood sugar tests value is more than 230mm/dl. An analysis of ketones is done based on the normal values. The effect is minimal if the result is less than 20mg/dl, it is moderate if the result lies between 30 to 40 mg/dl, and it is large if the result is greater than 80mg/dl.
- Fasting blood glucose level: This test is done when a person consumes food 9 to 11 hours ago. Its standard value is 99mg/dl or below, pre-diabetes if it is between 100 to 125 mg/dl, and diabetes if 126mg/dl or above.
- Postprandial Blood Glucose test: This test is done to measure the sugar level in the gap two hours after the consuming the meal. As we consume the food, a carbohydrate is generated by our body and it increases the level of sugar. This test is done after two hours so as to know the exact sugar level.
- Unsystematic blood glucose test: In this type of diagnosis, the sugar level of the body is reviewed irrespective of time and the last meal the person had. If blood sugar levels are constant, then it is confirmed that the person is not resonant to sugar. The standard values for random blood glucose test are 70-140mg/dl (normal), between 140-200mg/dl (pre-diabetes), and 200mg/dl & above (suffering from diabetes or it confirms you a diabetic).
- Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): It is a diagnosis for Type 2 diabetes. This test has the ability to identify the body response towards the breakdown of glucose in the bloodstream. This test is used to detect the pre-diabetes condition, diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes), and diabetes. OGTT is also known as Glucose Tolerance Test. The levels of glucose tolerance test is based on :
- is normal if the level is not more than 140mg/dl.
- is known as impaired sugar tolerance if the value lies between 140mg/dl -199mg/dl.
- is declared as a diabetic patient if value is equal to or more than 200mg/dl.
Radiological Investigation: This is done when the suspect suffers from pancreatic issue or Cushing’s disease.
- CT scan and upper abdominal ultrasound diagnosis for pancreatitis distrust.
- CT brain for Cushing’s diseases (to look for pituitary tumor)
If the above mentioned basic tests and diagnosis of the individual confirms diabetes with more severe state, the further tests are to be done to find the other damaged organs in the body. In this situation, it is necessary to undergo with some specific tests. Some of them are listed below:
- To know the past three month’s glucose level in the body, Hemoglobin A1C (Glycated hemoglobin) test is done.
- 1, 5-AG or 1, 5-Anhydroglucitol test is mostly done to identify the glycemic changes in a diabetic person with normal or above normal values of HB A1C test.
- To find the effect of sugar on a kidney, a renal function test is done.
- · Fasting Blood Lipids test is done to identify the level of Low–density lipoprotein, High–density lipoprotein, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a body.
- To identify the Diabetes insipidus, plasma osmolality and ADH assay test is done.
- An Electrolyte is done if a person’s signs with severe dehydration and decreased level of potassium. It can lead to Conn’s disorder.
- Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD): In human being, GAD is present in two isoforms called GAD1 genes and GAD2 genes. The focus of autoantibodies is present in human are on GAD1 and on GAD2. And if they suffer with autoantibodies, this can lead to Type1 diabetes.